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Distributionindependent safety analysisKeith Slater and Paul Cowell, National Air Traffic Services
ProblemIn various contexts, NATS need to ensure low probabilities of errors. A representative example is given below, but generically the error probabilities depend on the tails of some probability distributions for which there is no theoretical model, but considerable amounts of data. In these circumstances, questions that arise include:
Lots of real data will be supplied to the Study Group. Illustrative examplePart of NATS safety system requires that all of its radars at 22 sites have maximum safe ranges declared. NATS regularly undertakes an analysis of its radar performance to confirm or modify such ranges The maximum safe range for a radar depends on the separation required between aircraft. The declaration is typically of the form ``radar X can support 5Nm separations between pairs of aircraft at any range up to 120Nm from the radar''. It should be noted that radar performance is not constant. It can depend on many factors including: icing conditions at the radar and other weather factors; the presence of new structures such as windfarms; and modifications to the radar and its associated equipment. To determine maximum safe range the following process is followed:
In this last stage, the distribution of radar bearing errors, x, is currently fitted by a sum of two symmetric exponentials, (1) where p_{i}>0, p_{1}+p_{2}=1, lambda_{1}>lambda_{2}>0, so that the central part of the density is dominated by the first term and the tails by the second. This is an empirical choice: we know no theory of the distribution. The fitted distribution is then used to estimate the Horizontal Overlap Probabilities (HOP), i.e. the probability that 2 aircraft that are really on the same bearing appear to be separated by more than a certain angle theta_{0}: where X_{1} and X_{2} are independent samples from the distribution (1), so the question is answered using the tail probabilities of the convolution of (1) with itself. The question then arises as to how well the observed data really characterize the tail of the distribution: do the computed HOP depend moreorless directly on the data (and are fairly robust to what form of distribution is assumed); or is there quite a strong dependence on the form fitted. So this is a typical context in which the 5 questions listed earlier arise. Other examplesLooking further afield than radar we find that all of our safety data comes in this form. Typical data is from
We model the radar errors as mixed exponentials, altimetry system errors as mixed Gaussian or exponential plus other combinations. There is no real model for gain/loss data and the crash location is Weibull (at least in part). Decisions on separation standards and maximum safe ranges need to err on the cautious side but not be unrealistically constraining. Such decisions usually depend on some sort of convolution of the fitted p.d.f.s and so sensitivity to the treatment of the error data is important. 

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